Thoughts about React,Web Development,Performance

Published on August 17, 2022

Type-safe Environment Variables in Cloudflare Workers

TLDR; Define an EnvType type and set it to the env variable in your workers:

type EnvType = {
  API_VERSION: string;
};

export default {
  fetch(request: Request, env: EnvType): Response {
    return new Response(`The version of the API is ${env.API_VERSION}`);
  },
};

Continue reading for a more detailed explanation.

Adding Environment Variables

Let's start with the most basic handler for Workers with TypeScript:

export default {
  fetch(request: Request, env: EnvType): Response {
    return new Response(`The version of the API is ${env.API_VERSION}`);
  },
};

We'll add an environment variable with the current API version to our wrangler.toml file:

name = "workers-typescript-environment-variables"
main = "src/index.ts"
compatibility_date = "2022-08-16"

[vars]
API_VERSION = "v2"

Restart the server and refresh.

As you can see, we set the API_VERSION environment variable to the string v2.

We can reference this variable as follows (let's use any for now):

export default {
  fetch(request: Request, env: any): Response {
    return new Response(`The version of the API is ${env.API_VERSION}`);
  },
};

Without Type Safety

You can wrongly assume that API_VERSION is a number, so anything stops you from doing arythmethic with it:

export default {
  fetch(request: Request, env: any): Response {
    return new Response(`The previous version of the API is ${env.API_VERSION - 1}`);
  },
};

However, the output of the previous code is wrong:

The version of the API is NaN

Defining Our Environment Type

To avoid this issue, let's define a custom TypeScript type:

type EnvType = {
  API_VERSION: string;
};

Then we can set this type to the env parameter:

export default {
  fetch(request: Request, env: EnvType): Response {
    return new Response(`The previous version of the API is ${env.API_VERSION - 1}`);
  },
};

Now we get a TypeScript error:

[tsserver 2362][E] The left-hand side of an arithmetic operation must be of type 'any', 'number', 'bigint' or an enum type.

This is our full working code:

type EnvType = {
  API_VERSION: string;
};

export default {
  fetch(request: Request, env: EnvType): Response {
    return new Response(`The version of the API is ${env.API_VERSION}`);
  },
};

As you can see, we just use plain TypeScript to get type safety for our workers.

As always, you can find me on Twitter whenever you want.